Obesity is a major health issue worldwide, but finding solutions to the problem is amazingly complex.
Google searches reveal an overwhelming amount of information on the topic. There are more than 28 million ...
Posted August 17, 2017
By Julie Davis
MONDAY, Aug. 14, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Dieting is tough enough. But when you're the only one at home cutting back on calories, you might face ...
Posted May 17, 2017
By Regina B. Wheeler
MONDAY, May 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Sometimes life gets in the way of your workout plans. Maybe an illness or an injury got you off track or ...
How You Digest Carbs May Influence Weight Gain, Study Says
THURSDAY, April 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The way your body digests carbohydrates may affect your risk for obesity, a new genetic study indicates.
Researchers focused on a gene called AMY1, which is responsible ...
A Great Strategy for Weight Loss: Use a Smaller Plate
One of the key reasons why the average American eats more than 500 calories per day in 2013 than in 1970 is increased portion sizes. For baby boomers it is really obvious when they think back to the size of popcorn ...
Posted September 15, 2015
MONDAY, Sept. 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Larger portions and oversized tableware do contribute to overeating, a new study reports.
Eliminating jumbo servings of foods and beverages ...
Posted July 2, 2017
By Regina Boyle Wheeler
THURSDAY, June 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Are you a regular victim of the late-night snack attack? Mindlessly munching on chips or diving ...
Posted May 13, 2017
By Julie Davis
WEDNESDAY, May 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you're looking for big fitness results in a small amount of time, a twist on high-intensity interval ...
Posted February 23, 2017
By Dennis Thompson
MONDAY, Feb. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Anyone who has been on a diet knows the real challenge comes later, when you've got to fight tooth ...
By Serena Gordon
WEDNESDAY, April 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Spending time in the bright morning light may help you slim down, new research suggests.
The small study found that people ...
60 Percent of Diners Use Calorie Labeling When Posted: CDC
Posted July 13, 2014
By Dennis Thompson
THURSDAY, July 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- About six out of 10 adults make use of calorie information on menus, if it's available, to decide what ...
Scientists have discovered that exercising could make low-calorie food appear more appetizing.
Scans taken after volunteers jogged for an hour showed that the brain's "reward centers" lit up when they were shown ...
Posted October 18, 2016
FRIDAY, Oct. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Having a large waistline, a high body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes, may raise your risk for liver cancer, a new study suggests.
Posted September 6, 2017
By Alan Mozes
TUESDAY, Sept. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If a gym visit elicits more grimaces than grins, you might be genetically predisposed to dislike exercise, ...
Posted September 8, 2017
By Regina Boyle Wheeler
MONDAY, Sept. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Who doesn't love a big serving of creamy mashed potatoes or a side of steamy rice with their ...
Frequent Dining Out Might Widen Your Waistline, Study Finds
Posted October 21, 2014
FRIDAY, Oct. 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Love to dine out? You could be at higher risk for becoming overweight and having poorer cholesterol levels than people who prefer to eat at home, a ...
What can be more discouraging after weeks of dieting than the numbers on the scale? If you find yourself stepping on the scale day after day in hopes you’ll see a big change on the scale, only to be disappointed by ...
Posted May 10, 2017
By Joan McClusky
FRIDAY, May 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The first rule of diet success is to make changes you can stick with for the long term. And that means ...
Posted July 27, 2014
(HealthDay News) -- Finding ways to exercise at work can save you time and help make sure you get enough physical activity.
The American Council on Exercise offers these tips to help you ...
Posted May 16, 2017
FRIDAY, May 12, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Americans love fast food -- even if they can afford meals that aren't prepackaged in grease-resistant wrappers, according to a new study.
The study ...
'Thrifty' Metabolism Might Sabotage Weight Loss Efforts
Posted May 13, 2015
MONDAY, May 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- A new study confirms what many frustrated dieters already suspect: Your metabolism might make it tougher for you to lose weight than others.
When Counting Calories, Consider the Cream and Sugar
Posted February 9, 2017
TUESDAY, Feb. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Before you pour anything into your coffee cup besides coffee, heed the findings of a new study that shows a lot of extra calories come with that ...
Guest article by Mark Hyman, MD, Courtesy of Calmful Living
Especially around the holidays, you'll probably attend numerous luncheons, dinner parties, and other social events that restaurants will cater. If you're ...
Good at Imagining Aromas? You May Be Prone to Weight Gain
Posted July 8, 2015
TUESDAY, July 7, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Your ability to imagine smells could affect your weight, researchers report.
While everyone can imagine something such as a view from a favorite ...
Posted July 30, 2017
By Julie Davis
FRIDAY, July 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- You don't have to have an eating disorder, like binge eating, to have an overeating habit.
When stress, ...
Posted July 17, 2014
(HealthDay News) -- Concession-stand snacks at the beach don't always offer the healthiest options. But packing your own snacks ensures that you fuel your body with healthy foods.
"Grazing" Appears No Better for Weight Loss than Standard Meals
By Kathleen Doheny
THURSDAY, March 27, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- For weight loss, some swear by "grazing" -- eating several small meals throughout the day -- instead of eating fewer meals at ...
Posted March 8, 2016
By Maureen Salamon
WEDNESDAY, March 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Playing couch potato on the weekends may be even worse for your weight than working at a desk all week, ...
Posted June 1, 2017
By Regina B. Wheeler
TUESDAY, May 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- We've all come up with excuses for eating when we're really not hungry, like dealing with a difficult ...
You've Lost the Weight. How Soon Before It Comes Back?
Posted January 27, 2018
By Serena Gordon
MONDAY, Jan. 22, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- If you've just shed a lot of pounds, you might want to hold off on buying a new wardrobe full of "thin" ...
Nearly 1 in 5 Americans Drinks at Least 1 Soda a Day: CDC
Posted August 16, 2014
By E.J. Mundell
THURSDAY, Aug. 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A new survey of American adults across 18 states finds 17 percent drinking at least one sugary soda per ...
Good health is a top priority for Shari Duncan. As a certified nutrition and wellness coach, as well as a body builder and power lifter, Duncan puts a great amount of emphasis on proper training. But hitting the gym for ...
Posted June 1, 2014
(HealthDay News) -- Salads can be a healthy meal, but not if you top your greens with unhealthy foods and drown them in fattening dressing.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics suggests ...
Posted November 10, 2016
THURSDAY, Nov. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Too little sleep may contribute to a larger waistline, researchers say.
The new research included 11 studies with a total of 172 participants. ...
Posted February 3, 2015
By Michael T. Murray, ND
Oxygen, food, and water are the three main things we need to stay alive. If we're deprived of any of them for a significant period (not very long, when it comes ...
Posted November 13, 2015
By Kathleen Doheny
THURSDAY, Oct. 29, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Low-fat diets are often promoted as a superior way to lose weight, but they're no more effective than ...
Posted July 5, 2016
FRIDAY, July 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Having a stable family and a good relationship with mom and dad makes young people more likely to develop healthy habits that may protect them against ...
Ioannides-Demos L, Proietto J, et al. Safety of drug therapies used for weight loss and treatment of obesity. Drug Saf. 2006;29(4):277-302.
Kral, J.G. Surgical Treatment of Obesity. In Handbook of Obesity, ed. Bray, G.A., Bouchard, C., James, W.P.T. New York. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Shekelle P, Morton, S., Maglione M, et al. Ephedra and Ephedrine for Weight Loss and Athletic Performance Enhancement: Clinical Efficacy and Side Effects. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 76, Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center, RAND.
Ephedrine: Since March 2004, the sale of all products containing ephedra in the United States has been banned. Other names of ephedrine are ephedra, ephedrinum, and ma huang.
A study published in the February 2003 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine found that ephedra supplements make up only one percent of all dietary supplement sales, but account for 64 percent of adverse effects associated with dietary supplements.
A case-control study published in a 1993 issue of Neurology concluded that the rate of hemorrhagic (bleeding) strokes among ephedra-users was significantly higher than among nonusers, for people taking doses above 32 milligrams a day. According to the FDA, many ephedra-containing dietary supplement labels recommend that users take up to 100mg of ephedra daily.
Fenfluramine (Pondimin) and dexfenfluramine (Redux) were voluntarily removed from the market in 1997. These two medications were shown to be associated with a rare but very serious and potentially fatal disorder known as primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), a disease of the lungs. Forty-five percent of patients with PPH die within four years of diagnosis.
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a synthetic sympathomimetic amine structurally similar to pressor amines (i.e., epinephrine, phenylephrine, and ephedrine) and central nervous system stimulants (i.e., ephedrine, amphetamine). It is a common ingredient in cough-cold remedies and appetite suppressants. A study reports that taking PPA increases the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding into the brain or into tissue surrounding the brain) in women. Men may also be at risk but no data's available. Although the risk of hemorrhagic stroke is very low, FDA recommends that consumer should not use any products that contain PPA, and also manufacturer either reformulated or recalled all the medications that contain PPA.
General safety concerns: Most side effects of the medications that are approved by FDA are mild and diminish as treatment continues. Rarely, serious and even fatal outcomes have been reported. Medications that affect catecholamine levels, such as phentermine and dietylpropion may cause symptoms of sleeplessness, nervousness.
Gastric bypass surgery is the most common weight loss surgery which uses bands or staples to create food intake restriction. The bands or staples are surgically placed near the top of the stomach to section off a small portion that is often called a stomach pouch. A small outlet, about the size of a pencil eraser, is left at the bottom of the stomach pouch. Since the outlet is small, food stays in the pouch longer and you also feel full for a longer time.
This surgery is often performed in those who have a BMI ?40 (extremely obese) or BMI between 35 and 39.9 and with weight related health problems such as diabetes or high blood pressure.
Surgical candidates go through an extensive screening process. Not everyone who meets the criteria for the surgery is psychologically or medically ready for the surgical procedure. A team of professionals, including a physician, dietitian, psychologist and surgeon, evaluate whether the surgery is appropriate. Following surgery, physical, nutritional and metabolic counseling are given to prevent nutritional deficiencies. Lifelong use of nutritional supplements such as multivitamins, vitamin B12, vitamin D and calcium is recommended.
Researchers have found greater weight loss in gastric bypass (93.3 pounds) compared to gastroplasty (67 pounds) after one year. Over two years, gastric bypass surgery patients have been shown to lose two-thirds of excess weight. The success rate for weight loss for RGB is 68 to 72% of excess body weight over a three-year period, and 75% for BPD. After five years, the average excess weight loss from gastric bypass surgery ranges from 48 to 74%.
The improvements observed in type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol may significantly decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in individuals who have undergone gastric bypass surgery compared with those treated through other means. Gastric bypass surgery has also shown to improve mobility and quality of life for people who are severely overweight.
A risk of death has been associated with gastric bypass surgery. The risk varies depending on age, general health and other medical conditions. Talk to your doctor about the exact level of risk gastric bypass surgery may pose for you.
Blood clots in the legs are more likely to occur in very overweight people. Blood clots can be dangerous. In some cases, they travel to the lungs and lodge in the lungs' arteries causing a pulmonary embolism, a serious condition that damages lung tissue and can lead to death. Walking and using leg wraps that apply intermittent pressure to the leg can help reduce this risk of blood clots in the legs.
Leaking at one of the staple lines in the stomach has occurred and can be treated with antibiotics. Most cases heal with time. Sometimes, the leak can be serious enough to require emergency surgery.
Excess weight places extra stress on the chest cavity and lungs. This means a higher risk of developing pneumonia after the surgery.
Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and small intestine has occurred. This rare complication may require either an outpatient procedure to pass a tube through your mouth to widen (dilate) the narrowed opening or corrective surgery.
Gastric bypass can also cause dumping syndrome, a condition where stomach contents move too quickly through the small intestine causing nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness and sweating.
Other common complications include vitamin and mineral deficiency, dehydration, gallstones, bleeding stomach ulcer, hernia at the incision site, and intolerance to certain foods.
Adjustable gastric banding: The surgeon uses an inflatable band to partition the stomach into two parts. He or she then wraps the band around the upper part of your stomach and pulls it tight, like a belt, creating a tiny channel between the two pouches. The band keeps the opening from expanding and is designed to stay in place indefinitely. But it can be adjusted or surgically removed if necessary. Most surgeons perform this operation using a laparoscope.
Biliopancreatic diversion: In this procedure, a portion of your stomach is removed. The remaining pouch is connected directly to your small intestine, but completely bypasses your duodenum and jejunum where most nutrient absorption takes place. This weight-loss surgery offers sustained weight loss, but it presents a greater risk of malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies and requires close monitoring.
Jaw wiring: This is a form of food intake restriction for temporary use in patients without respiratory problems. It can be effective for short-term weight loss. However, weight regain occurs soon after the wires are removed.
Liposuction: This is the most frequent cosmetic operation in the United States in which fat tissue is removed. Relatively small amounts of total body fat can be removed safely, however, and little weight is lost.
Vertical banded gastroplasty: This operation divides the stomach into two parts - limiting space for food and forcing you to eat less. There is no bypass. Using a surgical stapler, the surgeon divides your stomach into upper and lower sections. The upper pouch is small and empties into the lower pouch (the rest of the stomach). Surgeons use this procedure less commonly than gastric bypass, partly because it does not lead to adequate long-term weight loss.
Appetite suppressants are agents that promote weight loss by decreasing appetite or increasing the sensation of fullness. About one-quarter of the U.S. population can be considered obese (BMI of >30). Four million of these people may be classified as morbidly obese (BMI of >40). Obesity is associated with increased risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
The use of appetite suppressant medications to treat obesity in combination with physical activity and diet modification is often recommended to lose and maintain weight successfully over the long term.
Several prescription medications are currently approved for treatment of obesity. In general, the effects of these medications are modest, leading to an average initial weight loss of between 5 and 22 pounds; though studies show that weight returns after cessation of the drugs. There is considerable individual difference in response to these medications; some people experience greater weight loss than others.
Short-term use of appetite suppressant medications has been shown to modestly reduce health risks for obese individuals. Studies have found that these medications can lower blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood fats (triglycerides), and decrease insulin resistance (the body's ability to utilize blood sugar). Long-term studies need to be conducted to determine if weight loss assisted by appetite suppressant medications can improve health long-term.
Weight loss tends to be greatest during the first few weeks or months of treatment, leveling off after about six months. Research suggests that if a patient does not lose at least four pounds during the first four weeks on a particular medication, that medication is unlikely to be effective over the long run.
Short-term use (few weeks to few months): Examples include diethylpropion (Tenuate®), and phentermine (Adipex-P®).
The mechanism of action of diethylpropion and phentermine appears to be secondary to CNS (central nervous system) effects, specifically stimulation of the hypothalamus to release catecholamines into the central nervous system. Appetite suppressing effects are mediated via norepinephrine and dopamine metabolism.
Long-term use (up to one year or more): Examples include orlistat (Xenical®) and sibutramine (Meridia®).
Orlistat is the first prescription treatment for obesity that does not act as an appetite suppressant. It works by interfering with the action of gastrointestinal (GI) lipase in the GI tract. As a result of this mechanism of action, 30% of ingested dietary fat is not absorbed.
Sibutramine and its two primary metabolites also appear to be secondary to CNS effects by blocking the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
OTC (over-the-counter): It is believed that "P57" molecule in Hoodia mimics the effect that glucose has on your brain, telling part of your brain (the hypothalamus) that you feel full. Consequently, you have no desire to eat. However current available evidence on hoodia's effectiveness and safety is lacking.
Dietrine Carb Blocker with Phase 2®: An ingredient extracted from white kidney beans is thought toneutralize the digestive enzyme alpha amylase before it can convert starch into glucose and then fat.
The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.